Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Infrastructure in cities of Saudi Arabia, Research Proposal
Infrastructure in cities of Saudi Arabia, - Research Proposal Example Estimate the time and cost required to enforce the strategy thus identified. Literature Review: Resilience is defined as a systemÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to maintain its function while absorbing shocks (McDaniel et al, 2008, p. 310). Functionality of the systems of infrastructure including electric power, transportation networks and sewage system means a lot to the urban society (Chang , 2009a, p. 1). The present condition of infrastructure across the world is such that 20 per cent of the present population of the world does not have clean water (Kinver, 2006 cited in Milman and Short, 2008, p. 760). Damage to infrastructure causes great losses to the region. In 1994, the Northridge highway that was damaged by earthquake caused a net loss of regional business worth $ 1.5 billion (Chang, 2009c). For long, it has been tried to design the infrastructure that could resist extreme forces. But since a couple of decades, engineers have started to make the systems of urban infrastructure resilient to natural disasters (NIST, 2008 cited in Chang, 2009b, p. 36). For natural hazards of extreme severity, it becomes extremely difficult for the structures to resist, though with correct design, resistance of the structures can be significantly increased (Minor, 2000, p. 5).